Alopen, a Nestorian monk, reaches the Tang capital of Chang’an (now Xian) and translates Christian Scripture for Emperor Taizhong. Taizhong is deeply interested in the doctrine and permits Alopen to preach a Nestorian form of Christianity.
Tang Emperor Wuzhong bans Buddhism and closes temples. Nestorianism is also hit by this revolutionary edict. Nestorian clergy either emigrate or return to secular life.
1245 Pope Innocent IV sends a Franciscan friar, John of Plano Carpini, eastward with official letters to open diplomatic relations between the Vatican and the Mongols.
Pope Nicholas IV sends a Franciscan, John of Montecorvino, on a diplomatic mission to the first Yuan emperor.
Montecorvino reaches Beijing and is granted permission to live in the capital, make converts, and build a church.
Pope Clement V establishes the Archdiocese of Beijing, appointing Montecorvino the archbishop for China and the Far East. In July of that year, the Pope ordained seven Franciscans as bishops to come to China and assist Montecorvino.
Montecorvino sends a Franciscan, Odoric of Pordenone, back to Europe to request more missionaries. Montecorvino dies.
Odoric dies in Italy and later, in 1755 was named Blessed, the first missionary to China to be beatified.
There are 60,000 Catholics in Beijing, but with no bishop ever succeeding Montecorvino, the church gradually disappears.
St. Francis Xavier dies on Shangchuan (Sancian) Island off the coast of Guangdong, and Matteo Ricci is born.
Jesuits reach Macau (Macao).
Ricci and Michele Ruggieri settle in Zhaoqing, Guangdong, starting the modern mission era in China. The Creator is called Tianzhu, the Lord of Heaven, for the first time.
The Jesuits establish their China Province, with Mateo Ricci as the first superior. Xu Guangqi meets Ricci.
Paul Xu Guangqi, one of the Three Pillars (great first converts) of the Catholic Church in China, is baptized in Nanjing.
Ricci baptizes Li Zhizao, another of the Three Pillars, in Beijing. Ricci dies and is buried in the capital.
Fr. Lazaro Cattaneo baptizes Yang Tingyun. Luo Wenzao, the first Chinese bishop, is born.
The Jiading Conference discusses terms for God such as Shangdi and Tianzhu. Aside from missionaries, Xu Guangxi, Li Zhizao, Yang Tingyun and other Catholic laymen were present.
Propaganda Fide prohibits Chinese Catholics from participating in ceremonies to honor Confucius and the ancestors. The century-long Chinese Rites Controversy begins.
The first Chinese martyr, Dominican Francis Capillas, is killed in Fujian. Pope Pius X beatifies him in 1909.
Luo Wenzao ordained a priest in Manila.
The Vatican established the Vicariate of Nanjing for Jiangsu, Henan, Shanxi, Shandong, Shaanxi and Gaoli (Korea).
Pope Clement X names Luo Wenzao the Bishop of Nanjing, but he was not ordained a bishop until 1685.
Emperor Kangxi issued Edict of Toleration, granting missionaries freedom to spread the faith and freedom of religion to Chinese citizens.
The papal legate in Nanjing, Maillard de Tournon, proclaims a ban on Chinese Rites. Emperor Kangxi banishes him from China.
The papal legate, Charles Ambrose Mezzabarba, arrives in China to deal with the Rites Controversy.
Emperor Yongzheng bans the preaching of Catholicism in China under penalty of death. The scope of the missionaries’ activities is limited to Guangzhou, but some of them have permission to remain in Beijing.
The Qing government allows Zhou Xuejian, the Governor of Fujian, to eliminate evangelizers. A nationwide persecution of Catholics ensues.
Pope Clement XIV issues an edict suppressing the Jesuits.
William Morrison reaches Macau in late September, and then enters Guangzhou to preach. He is the first Protestant missionary to enter China.
Pope Pius VII reestablishes the Jesuits. Bl. Wu Guosheng is martyred in Zunyi, Guizhou Province.
The Opium War between China and Britain ends in an unequal treaty, which gives missionaries the right to live and work in five treaty ports.
The unequal Treaty of Tianjin, France compels China to abolish all restraints on missionary activity in China.
China is divided into five mission territories: 1.) Zhili (Hebei), Manchuria (northeast), Mongolia; 2.) Shandong, Shanxi, Henan, Shaanxi, Gansu; 3.) Hunan, Hubei, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Jiangnan; 4.) Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Xizhang (Tibet); 5.) Guangdong, Fujian and Hong Kong.
The Boxer Uprising seeks to expel all foreigners. They murder 4 bishops, 31 priests and 30,000 lay Catholics. Number of Catholics nationwide reaches 720,000.
Ma Xiangbo opens Aurora Academy in Xujiahui, Shanghai. After being expelled from the Jesuits, he opens Fudan Public Academy in 1905, later called Fudan University.
The Wuhan Uprising starts on October 10 and succeeds. The Republic of China is established on January 1, 1912 with Nanjing as the capital. Catholics total 1,430,000 nationwide.
Bishop (later Cardinal) Celso Costantini sent as the first apostolic delegate to China.
First Plenary Council of China meets in Shanghai, with two Chinese apostolic administrators in attendance.
Thanks to the outstanding initiative of lay Catholics, Fujen University opens in Beijing.
Pope Pius XI personally ordains six Chinese bishops in Rome. They are the first Chinese bishops since Luo Wenzhao.
The War of Resistance against Japan starts, and most Catholic hospitals are put at the service of the struggle. There are 3,100,000 Catholics in China.
On December 8, Propaganda Fide issues a directive stating that the Chinese Rites are part of traditional Chinese culture and are worthy of esteem.
Japan surrenders on August 15, ending WW II. Bishop Tian Gengxin of Qingdao is made a Cardinal, the first Cardinal of East Asian ancestry.
The Chinese hierarchy is established with 20 ecclesial provinces, 20 archdioceses and a total of 117 dioceses. On July 6, Archbishop Antonio Riberi becomes the first Internuncio to China. He resides in Nanjing, then the capital.
The People's Republic of China is established on October 1. The Communist Party issues its Common Program as a temporary Constitution.
Fr. Li Weiguang, the newly appointed administrator of the Diocese of Nanjing, calls for a “self-supporting, self-governing, self-propagating Catholic Church in China.” Archbishop Riberi is expelled from China. Many lay people and religious are arrested. Most Catholic institutions are nationalized.
On January 18, Pope Pius XII issues apostolic letter To the Catholics of China to encourage Catholics.
Bishop Ignatius Gong Pinmei along with over 300 priests, Sisters and laity are arrested in Shanghai. Large numbers of Catholics are arrested across China. Fr. Li Weiguang in Nanjing plans to establish a National Church, but he is excommunicated.
1957 The Chinese Catholic Patriotic Association (CCPA) is established in Beijing and holds its First National Conference. Archbishop Pi Shushi of Shenyang is chosen as its first chairman.
The Chinese Church selects and ordains Bishops Dong Guangqing of Hankou and Yuan Wenhua of Wuhan. The CCPA asks the Vatican for approval, but Propaganda Fide rejects the request.
The Second Nation Conference of the CCPA is held in Beijing. Pope John XXIII opens Vatican II, the first Ecumenical Council with Chinese bishops in attendance. Bishops in the Mainland are invited, but none of them are able to attend.
The Great Cultural Revolution erupts and all churches are closed as ten years of chaos begins. All clergy, including priests and bishops working with the Patriotic Association, are arrested or sent to labour camps.
The Vatican appoints Fr. Francis Xu Chengbin as Auxiliary Bishop of Hong Kong on July 1. He is consecrated on Oct. 7, the first Chinese bishop in the history of HK. 1969 Bishop Xu appointed Bishop of Hong Kong on May 29 and installed on Oct. 26.
Immaculate Conception Church (the South Church) reopens in Beijing, to provide the foreign diplomatic community with Catholic liturgy.
Chairman Mao dies on Sept. 9. Hua Guofeng and Ye Jianying overthrow the Gang of Four. Victims of the Cultural Revolution
slowly have their verdicts overturned.
Bishop Georg Moser of W. Germany visits China, the highest-ranking Catholic cleric to visit since 1949.
Cardinals Etchegarray and Koening visit China.
Bishop Dominic Deng Yiming of Guangzhou released after 22 years in prison, and goes to Hong Kong for medical treatment.
The Third National Conference of the CCPA is held in Beijing in May. It resolves to establish the Chinese Bishops’ Conference and the Church Administrative Committee, stating that these two organizations both have an “ecclesial nature.”
Visiting Manila, Pope John Paul II addresses the Chinese people, hoping for a dialogue between the two sides. He stresses that one can be truly Christian and authentically Chinese at the same time.
Cardinal Cassaroli visits HK and meets Bishop Dominic Deng Yiming.
Pope John Paul II appoints Deng Yiming as Archbishop of Guangzhou, triggering strong protests from the CCPA and the Chinese government.
The government issues Document 19, “The Basic Viewpoint and Policy on the Religious Question during Our Country’s Socialist Period.”
Sheshan Seminary reopens in Shanghai, the first seminary to reopen since they were all closed in 1957.
Cardinal Jaime Sin of Manila visits China. All 29 foreign bishops resign from their previous sees in the Mainland.
Protestants establish the Amity Foundation in Nanjing to respond to social needs.
Bishop John Baptist Wu of Hong Kong returns home for the first time since 1949, the first bishop of H.K. to visit the PRC.
Mother Teresa visits China for the first time.
Bishop Kong Pinmei of Shanghai released after 30 years in prison.
Bishop Jin Luxian of Shanghai leads a Catholic group to visit Hong Kong, Macau and the Philippines.
Bishop J.B. Wu visits his home in Wuhua, Guangdong, for the first time in 40 years. He calls upon the Diocese of Hong Kong to become a Bridge Church between the Mainland and the rest of the world.
The Vatican appoints Fr. Domingos
Lam Ka Tseung as the first Chinese bishop of Macau. He succeeded as the ordinary
of the Diocese of Macau in 1988.
Bishop Kong Pinmei of Shanghai has his civil rights restored in January. He leaves for the USA in May to visit relatives and for medical treatment.
Bishop J.B. Wu becomes a cardinal in June at age 63.
Joseph Cardinal Tomko, Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, issues a document giving eight directives for foreign clergy who visit China.
The Central Office of the Party and the State Council issue Document 3: On Stepping up Control over the Catholic Church to Meet the New Situation.
On Nov. 21, a dozen underground priests and bishops meet in Sanyuan County, Shaanxi, and establish the Chinese Bishops Conference. They elect Bishops Fan Xueyan (not present) and Deng Yiming (overseas) as honorary chairmen, Bishop Liu Guandong of Yixian as chairman, and Auxiliary Bishop Liu Shuhe of Yixian as secretary. Shortly afterwards, the government broke up the underground Bishops Conference, arrested many bishops and sent them to prison or labor camp.
In February, Document 6: A Circular from Party Central and the State Council concerning Certain Problems in Further Improving Religious Work is published.
Bishop Gong Pinmei of Shanghai, a “secret Cardinal” since 1979 now living in the USA, goes to Rome to receive his red hat on June 29.
On November 1, the Foreign Office of the State Council publishes a White Paper: Human Rights in China, which reiterates that citizens of China enjoy religious freedom.
Fifth National Catholic Conference held in Beijing and decides to use the vernacular in the liturgy.
The H.K. Studium Biblicum gives the Church in China copywrite permission to reprint the Chinese Bible.
The State Council issues Decree 144: Regulations on the Supervision of the Religious Activities of Foreigners in China and Decree 145: Regulations Regarding the Management of Places of Religious Activities.
Archbishop Dominic Deng Yiming of Guangzhou dies in the USA on June 27 at age 87.
Papal representative, Archbishop Claudio Celli, meets with representatives of the central government in Beijing. This is seen as a first step towards establishing diplomatic relations. Pope John Paul II appoints Fr. Joseph Zen to be the Coadjutor Bishop of Hong Kong and Fr. John Tong to be the Auxiliary Bishop.
The government issues a White Paper on Religious Freedom to refute accusations it interferes with religious rights.
The Synod of Asian Bishops is held in Rome. Pope John Paul II announces that he had invited Bishop Duan Yinming of Wanxian in Sichuan and his Auxiliary Bishop Xu Zhixuan to attend, but the Chinese government refused them permission to leave China.
Pope John Paul II creates 22 new Cardinals, including Paul Shan of Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Cardinal Gong Pinmei dies in the USA at age 98. Four other Chinese bishops die during the year.
The government issues a White Paper: Fifty Years of Progress in Human Rights in China.
Pope John Paul II canonizes 120 Chinese Martyrs in Rome on Oct. 1.
Bishop Duan Yinming of Wanxian in Sichuan dies in January. He was the last surviving bishop in China appointed by Pope Pius XII.
At an international seminar on the Fourth Centenary of Matteo Ricci’s Arrival in Beijing, Pope John Paul II apologizes for all “past and present” mistakes committed by Catholic personnel in China.
Cardinal J.B. Wu dies in H.K. on Sept. 23, and Bp. Joseph Zen, age 71, succeeds him.
After being closed for many years, the oldest private library in Xujiahui, Shanghai, built by the Jesuits over a century ago, finally reopens.
Fr. Arnold Janssen, S.V.D, the founder of the Society of Divine Word, and Fr. Joseph Freinademetz, S.V.D., who worked and died in Shandong, are both beatified in the same ceremony.
The Holy See demands a clear explanation of the arrest of Bishop Wei Jingyi. This is the first time Rome has publicly expressed concern over the arrest of a cleric in China. Beijing maintains that Bishop Wei was picked up for leaving China illegally, but releases him shortly afterwards.
In December, the State Council issues new Regulations on Religious Affairs.
Pope John Paul passes away on April 2. During his final illness, the Chinese Foreign Office expresses its concern and sympathy through the news media.
Cardinal Godfried Danneels of Belgium cuts short his visit to China due to the Pope's death.
On April 19, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, Prefect of the Congregation for Doctrine, is elected Pope. He chooses the name Benedict XVI.
The Chinese Foreign Ministry congratulates the new pope, and repeats its demand for the Holy See to sever diplomatic relations with Taiwan.
Receiving ambassadors from 174 nations and organizations, the new pope expresses his wish to establish ties with “many nations which do not have diplomatic relations with the Holy See.” This is interpreted as a call to establish relations with China. The media and Internet are abuzz with rumors that the two sides will do this quickly.
The Vatican approves three new bishops: Xing Wenzhi in Shanghai, Dang Mingyan in Xian, and He Zeqing as Coadjutor Bishop of Wanxian.
On February 22, 2006, Pope Benedict XVI announced the elevation of Bishop Joseph Zen, ordinary of the Hong Kong Diocese, to the rank of Cardinal. Bishop Zen, 74, will thus become the 6th Chinese Cardinal in history, and with the retirement last year of Cardinal Paul Shan, 82, of Kaohsiung, the only active Chinese Cardinal.
From April 20 to May 7, 2006, the ordinations of four bishops took place in China. In two of these the candidates, Bishop Xu Honggen of Suzhou and Bishop Pei Junmin of Shenyang, were appointed by the Pope. This is a cause for joy for the Universal Church. On the other hand, the ordinations of Ma Yinglin and Liu Xinhong for the dioceses of Kunming and Anhui respectively did not have the Pope's approval, and so were unauthorized. The candidates and their consecrators are subject to severe Church disciplinary measures.
On June 30, 2007, the Vatican released the long awaited letter of Pope Benedict XVI to the clergy and Catholics of China:
Letter of the Holy Father Pope Benedict XVI to the Bishops, Priests, Consecrated Persons and Lay Faithful of the Catholic Church in the People's Republic of China
An earthquake measuring 7.8 on the Richter Scale took place in Sichuan Province. The great disaster and its numerous victims stirred deep compassion and prompted help from many people, both inside and outside the country, including from the Holy Father and Catholics.
On August 8, 2008, Opening Ceremony of the Olympic Games in Beijing: the bishop of Macau, Bishop Joseph Lai, and the coadjutor bishop of Hong Kong, Bishop John Tong, were invited to take part.
Despite tight surveillance during the Olympics, and police warnings not to hold large celebrations, more than 1,000 Catholics joined "underground" Bishop Julius Jia Zhiguo of Zhengding, Hebei province, to celebrate the Feast of the Assumption of Mary, at the cathedral in Wuqiu village, Jin county on August 15.
On December 19, celebration
of the 50th Anniversary of the first self-elected and self-ordained bishops in the Catholic Church of China. 45 bishops and about 200 Catholic priests, sisters and lay leaders took part in the celebration. Du Qinglin, director of the United Front Department and Ye Xiaowen, director of the State Administration of Religious Affairs were also present. Bishop Ma Yinglin, secretary of the Catholic Bishops Conference, a Protestant pastor, four Catholic bishops, a priest, a nun and a lay representative all gave speeches.
Bishop John Tong Hon was installed as Bishop of Hong Kong on April 16, 2009 upon the retirement of Cardinal Joseph Zen
Ze-kiun, SDB. Bishop Tong is the seventh Bishop of Hong Kong, and is the first
one to have been born in Hong Kong.
Bishop John Tong Hon
On May 24, the Holy See issued a Compendium
of the Pope's Letter to Chinese Catholics, which addresses the themes of the Letter in a question and answer format, in order to provide a better understanding of the original document.
On November, publication of the letter of Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, SDB, Vatican Secretary of State, to all the priests in China on the occasion of the Year of Priests. In
Taipei, Cardinal Jozef Tomko, Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Evangelization
of Peoples, Pope Benedict’s Special Envoy, presided over the closing ceremony of
the celebration of the 150 years of the Catholic Church’s evangelization of Taiwan.
In 2010, 10 out of 11 Bishops ordained
was approved by Pope, but only Bishop Joseph Guo Jincai was ordained
as the first bishop of Chengde, Hebei, without the mandate of the Holy See on Nov.
The 8th National Assembly of Catholic Representatives was held on December 7-9, at the Friendship Hotel, Beijing. Delegates elected the new President and 6 vice-presidents for the Bishops' Conference and the president and ten vice-presidents for the Catholic Patriotic Association. Fang Xingyao is the new president of the Catholic Patriotic Association, and Ma Yinglin is the new President of the Bishops' Conference.
The episcopal ordination in Rome of a Chinese theologian from Hong Kong, Fr. Savio Hon Tai-Fai, SDB, as archbishop
on Feb. 5, 2011, after he had been appointed General Secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples.
Archbishop Savio Hon Tai-Fai
On Mar. 20, the Hong Kong Diocese published the Chinese edition of A Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church.
The Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts signed and published the Declaration on the Correct Application of Canon 1382 of the Code of Canon Law. The Chinese text was published on June 13. The Vatican states that people involved in illicit ordinations could be excommunicated on Jun.
In July, the Xinhua Net published an English text of the Assessment Report on the National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2009-2010).
The Holy See expressed regret over the attempted ordination of Fr. Huang Bingzhang as bishop of the Shantou Diocese
on July 16, published a statement that he is subject to the penalty of excommunication for violating Canon 1382 of the Code of Canon Law.
A road accident on the Jinzhou section of the Hebei provincial highway, killed one priest, Fr. Shi Liming, 39, and six seminarians belonging to the unregistered Church. Another seminarian was seriously wounded.
The elevation of the new Cardinals got underway in earnest with the Consistory in St. Peter's Basilica on Feb. 18,
On January 6, 2012, the Feast of the Epiphany, the Vatican announced that the Holy Father Pope Benedict XVI appointed Bishop John Tong, Bishop of Hong Kong and our beloved Director of Holy Spirit Study Centre, to be a Cardinal of the Catholic Church.
Cardinal John Tong Hon
On July 6,
Father Joseph Yue Fusheng (1964-) was ordained bishop of Heilongjiang, without papal mandate, followed by his official excommunication by the Holy See.
On July 7,
Episcopal ordination of Father Thaddeus Ma Daqin as 'auxiliary' bishop of Shanghai. As the ceremony was closing, the new 'auxiliary' bishop declared he would give up his post in the Chinese Catholic Patriotic Association (CCPA) to focus on his episcopal ministry. That same afternoon, however, he was taken away by Chinese authorities and put under guard in the hostel of Sheshan Seminary and forbidden to do any pastoral ministry.
Later, on December 10, the government-sanctioned Chinese Bishops' Conference officially revoked for two years, the appointment of Bishop Thaddeus Ma Daqin as 'coadjutor' bishop of Shanghai. On December 12, this decision was confirmed by Beijing Civil Authorities. Meanwhile, the Holy See's spokesman as well as Archbishop Savio Hon Tai-Fai denounced that action as improper because it is beyond the authority of the Chinese Bishops' Conference.
On August 22,
Cardinal Paul Shan Kuo-hsi (1923-2012), bishop emeritus of Kaohsiung, Taiwan, died of multiple organ failure.
January 7, Bishop John Huo Cheng (霍成主教) of Fenyang (汾陽), the Shanxi (山西) Major Seminary's former board-chairman, announced the closure of the embattled Shanxi Montecorvino Major Seminary in Taiyuan (太原), for two years.
February 11, Pope Benedict XVI's retired from the Petrine Ministry: Xinhua News Agency also reported this announcement.
March 14, After the election of Pope Francis on March 13, the Chinese Foreign Ministry issued a congratulatory message, but pointed out: “Let us hope that the Vatican, under the guidance of the new Pope, adopts a practical and flexible attitude.
Death of Bishop Aloysius Jin Luxian (金魯賢主教 1916-2013), coadjutor bishop of Shanghai
(上海). Bp. Jin requested and received the approval of the Holy See, becaming coadjutor
bishop to the unofficial ordinary Bishop Fang Zhongliang (范忠良主教).
Death of Bishop Peter Liu Guandong (劉冠東主教 1919-2013), retired unofficial bishop
of Yixian, Hebei (河北易縣). On November 29, 1989, he was a key figure in and presided
over the meeting to establish the unofficial Bishops' Conference held at Zhangerce,
The death of Bp. Joseph Fan Zhongliang (范忠良, 1918-2014), unofficial bishop of Shanghai, 96 years old. On September 8, 1955, together with Bishop Gong Pinmei (龔品梅) and many other priests and lay Catholics, he was arrested, and condemned to 20 years of prison for “anti-revolutionary crimes.”He was sent to Qinghai for prison and forced labor until 1978, when he was freed. On February 26, 1985, he was secretly ordained coadjutor bishop of Shanghai by Bp. Lu Zhensheng (陸振聲) of Tianshui. After the death of Bp. Fan Xueyan
(范學淹) of Baoding, he was elected head of the
underground Bishops' Conference.
Pope Francis appointed three Auxiliaries for the Diocese of Hong Kong : Fr. Michael Yeung Ming-cheung (楊鳴章,1946-), Vicar General of the Diocese of Hong Kong, head of the local Caritas office and Member of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum, Fr. Stephen Lee Bun Sang (李斌生,1956-), Vicar of Opus Dei for East Asia and Fr. Joseph Ha Chi-shing, O.F.M. (夏志誠,1959-), former O.F.M. Regional Superior in Hong Kong. Their episcopal
ordination was held on August 30 at the Hong Kong Catholic Cathedral.
The three Auxillary Bishops of Hong Kong, Bp. Stephen
Lee, Bp. Michael Yeung, Bp. Joseph Ha.
July 30, 31,
Following the beatings and arrest of Zhejiang Christians who desired to protect their churches, Bishop Zhu Weifang (朱維方), 88, Catholic bishop of Wenzhou (溫州) wrote an open letter protesting against the campaign to remove crosses and destroy churches.
Official information released (but later denied) about the death of Bishop Cosmas Shi Enxiang (師恩祥1921-2015), bishop of Yixian (易縣) Diocese.
According to Xinhua, Chinese President Xi Jinping (習近平), at the closure of a national meeting on United Front Work, held May 18-20 in Beijing, stressed that as religions develop in China, they should undergo the process of “sinicization” and be independent from foreign influence.
Episcopal ordination of Rev. Joseph Zhang Yinlin (張銀林1971-), as coadjutor bishop of Anyang, Henan, approved by the Holy See and the Chinese Authorities.
The second round of negotiations between Beijing and Vatican representatives was held in Beijing, after an icebreaker in June 2014.
Police informed the family of Father Pedro Yu Heping (蔚和平), also known as Wei Heping, that the priest's body had been found on November 8 in the Fen River, a tributary of the Yellow River, in Shanxi province. They considered it a case of suicide,
but many doubt it, due to the ambiguous
circumstances of his death.
22-23, Chinese President Xi Jinping addressed a National Conference on Religious Work in Beijing, launching the official trend toward "Sinicization of Religion".
Chinese sources reported that authorities have prevented dozens of youngsters and priests from several dioceses in China from taking part in the 31st World Youth Day, held at Krakow, Poland from July
26 - 31.
6, Bp. Guo Xijin (郭希錦) of Mindong/Funing(閩東/福寧)
Diocese, Fujian, with 2 other priests have been
taken away by the police for about 20 days.
Episcopal ordination of Fr. Joseph Tang Yuange (唐遠閣, 1963-) as ordinary bishop of Chengdu, and Fr. John Baptist Wang Xiaoxun (王曉勳, 1966-), as coadjutor bishop of Ankang, Shaanxi.
There was another ordination of Fr. Peter Ding Lingbin (丁令斌, 1962-) as ordinary Bishop of Changzhi Diocese, Shanxi
on Nov.10, Fr. John Lei Jiapei (雷家培, 1970-) as ordinary bishop of Xichang, Sichuan
on Dec.2. All are recognized by the Holy See and the